Prospective randomized assessment of transfer of training and transfer effectiveness ratio of virtual reality simulation training for laparoscopic skill acquisition. Ann Surg 2013; 257: 1025-1031.

Published: 12th November 2013

Authors: Gallagher AG, Seymour NE, Jordan-Black J-A, Bunting B, McGlade K, Satava RM et al.


Both experienced laparoscopic surgeons (n=195) and laparoscopic novices (n=30) improved after virtual reality simulation training compared to controls. It had the greatest impact on reducing procedural errors which reduced by up to 42 per cent.

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